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Answered By: Matthew Davis
Last Updated: Mar 20, 2017     Views: 111

In the APA style, you only omit the year from repeated references within the same paragraph IF you are talking directly about a particular study.


Merrit, Effron and Monin (2010) state that past good behaviour can let individuals to feel as though they are licensed to engage in immoral behaviour. Merrit, Effron and Monin believe that individuals mentally balance out bad behaviour with good.

If, on the other hand, the in text citation occurs within brackets e.g. (Merrit, Effron & Monin, 2010), then repeated references within the same paragraph also require the year, even if you then subsequently talk directly about the article. To complicate this further, if you have the first citation all within brackets, and then the second citation with only the year in brackets, the next citation (if you are talking directly about an article) does not require the year.

Example 1:

first citation: ... determined by self-licensing (Merrit, Effron & Monin, 2010).

second citation: Merrit, Effron and Monin (2010) state that...

third citation:  ...supported by the work of Merrit, Effron and Monin.

Example 2:

first citation: (Merrit, Effron & Monin, 2010)

second citation: (Merrit, Effron & Monin, 2010)

third citation: Merrit, Effron and Monin (2010)...