There are a couple of ways you can do something like this in the catalogue.
You can browse our print material that's on the physical shelves, by call number. Just find something on a topic you are interested in, and click the Browse icon beside its call number. This will drop you into a list of titles arranged by call number, so you'll be able to see what's close by on the shelves.
Ebooks and ejournals don't have call numbers in the same way, so the best thing to do to browse them is keyword or subject searches in the catalogue or CrossSearch.